Detection of Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIb) antigenuria by latex agglutination has been shown to be sensitive, specific, and rapid. In children, antigenuria persisted for a mean duration of 10 days and a maximum of 18 days. Antigenuria was demonstrated in 25 of 30 patients with HIb infection but not in 62 with other types of infection. In five children, antigenuria confirmed the diagnosis in the absence of bacteriological confirmation. In five other children, antigenuria was not found, but in this group the antigen was detected in another body fluid or HIb was recovered.