A case of inadvertent transplantation of malignancy is presented in detail. The donor was a 36-year-old woman with an unsuspected disseminated carcinoma of lung, and the renal and tumour transplant recipient a 53-year-old man. The transplanted tumour remained clinically "silent" and was discovered only a necropsy after the recipient's death from ischaemic heart disease. The phenomena of de novo primary and transferred (donor) malignancy in organ recipients, along with related immunological considerations, are briefly reviewed. Finally, with regard to the increasing frequency and variability of organ transplants, the routine clinical practice required to minimise the risk of these complications is re-emphasised, with additional recommendations.
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