Nuclear area and shape of epithelial cells were measured in cytological specimens from 10 patients with cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium and four patients with adenomatous hyperplasia. Only specimens from patients with histologically confirmed widespread disease of the endometrium were accepted in the study. The mean nuclear area in cystic hyperplasia was significantly lower than in adenomatous hyperplasia. Results from previous measurements with the same method in normal and malignant conditions were compared with those from hyperplastic conditions. Both cystic and adenomatous hyperplasia differed from normal endometrium but not from malignant conditions. The scatter in values in the different conditions overlapped to such a degree as to make nuclear size of little importance as a diagnostic criterion. There were no differences in nuclear shape between normal, hyperplastic, and malignant conditions.
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