Endometrial biopsies were obtained from 32 women with suspected pelvic inflammatory disease, of whom 23 (72%) had histopathological evidence of endometritis. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the endometria of nine (39%) women (chlamydia group) but not from the other 14 (non-chlamydia group). Severe plasma cell endometritis and lymphoid follicles with transformed lymphocytes were significantly more common in the chlamydia group than in the non-chlamydia group. This suggests that C trachomatis is an invasive endometrial pathogen which often causes severe inflammation. The association was independent of predisposing factors such as use of intrauterine contraceptive devices.
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