Two patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia, type I (CDA) were studied. Their blood reticulocytes showed unbalanced globin chain synthesis with increased alpha:beta globin chain synthesis ratios. A high proportion of the erythroblasts displayed the characteristic "Swiss cheese" abnormality of the nuclear chromatin and some also showed cytoplasmic intrusions lined with nuclear membrane within the nucleus. Occasional erythroblast profiles contained intracytoplasmic inclusions that were ultrastructurally indistinguishable from precipitated alpha chains. The technique of combined Feulgen microspectrophotometry and 3H-thymidine autoradiography showed gross abnormalities of proliferation in the early polychromatic erythroblasts. The proliferative abnormalities included an arrest of DNA synthesis after the progress of cells through part of the S phase and the formation of several mononucleate and binucleate cells with hypertetraploid total DNA contents. The bone marrow cells gave a normal deoxyuridine suppressed value, indicating that there was no impairment of the methylation of deoxyuridylate. Electron microscope autoradiographic studies showed that a high proportion of the erythroblasts with the "Swiss cheese" nuclear abnormality suffered from a severe impairment, or arrest of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.