Urine samples from 50 patients attending a genitourinary outpatient clinic and from 13 renal allograft recipients were investigated for evidence of infection with human BK and JC polyomaviruses using cytology and a new DNA hybridot assay. Forty four per cent of samples from the renal allograft recipients were positive by cytology and 75% by DNA hybridisation, indicating that hybridot assay is more sensitive than cytological screening. BK and JC viral DNA was found in 20% of the patients attending the genitourinary clinic, showing infection with BK virus and JC virus in a group of patients with clinical conditions not normally associated with immunological deficiency-a finding that has not been reported before.
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