The presence of Campylobacter pylori, histologically diagnosed gastritis, and antibodies to C pylori were determined in a series of 113 patients undergoing endoscopy. Paired biopsy specimens from the fundus, body, and antrum were collected from 59 patients and from the antrum of 54 patients. The presence of C pylori was confirmed by either culture or silver stain in 30 of 59, 31 of 59, and 54 of 103 biopsy specimens from the fundus, body, and antrum, respectively. Of the specimens which contained C pylori 20 of 30 (66%) from the fundus, 25 of 31 (80%) from the body, and 54 (100%) from the antrum showed gastritis. C pylori and gastritis were shown in seven of nine (78.1%) of patients with gastric ulcers and in nine of 11 (82%) of patients with duodenal ulcers. Using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect IgG antibody to C pylori, all patients with histologically diagnosed gastritis and organisms present had titres of greater than or equal to 640; eight of 39 (21%) of patients without gastritis and without organisms gave similar titres. Hence the presence of C pylori was associated with gastritis and with raised titres of IgG antibody.