Six screening methods for the successful detection of significant bacteriuria--electrical impedance (Malthus), automated acridine-orange staining (Autotrak), particle counting (Ramus), bioluminescence, nitrite and leucocyte test strip (BM Nephur), and microscopy--were evaluated. All had excellent predictive values for a negative result (97%-100%) but were less accurate in predicting a positive result (31%-83%). All methods had high sensitivities (83%-100%) but lower levels of specificity (68%-79%). Bioluminescence was the method with the highest specificity (79%) and the lowest rate of false positive results (15%). It would be inappropriate to decide on treatment and management on the basis of the positive results achieved with any of the methods evaluated, but all methods tested could be used for screening out negative results.
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