The murine monoclonal antibody Mac 387 was raised against a purified protein fraction obtained from human monocytes. By immunoblotting experiments, Mac 387 was shown to react with a previously defined antigen called L1; this is a multichain myelomoncytic protein of about 36 Kd which shows sequence homology with the cystic fibrosis antigen. The L1 protein is present in the cytoplasm of virtually all resting peripheral neutrophils and monocytes; it is also variably expressed on the plasma membrane of these cells, possibly as a secretory product. Because the L1 antigen is resistant to denaturation by formalin, its tissue distribution can be studied in routinely processed biopsy material. In a wide variety of specimens Mac 387 was shown by immunohistochemical analysis, to produce a cytoplasmic staining pattern concordant with that of a well defined polyclonal antibody to the L1 antigen. Cytoplasmic reactivity was obtained with granulocytes and infiltrating macrophages but generally not with several categories of dendritic cells. In addition, squamous epithelium of mucous membranes was strongly positive, in contrast to normal epidermis.