Of the first 250 heart and 35 heart and lung transplant recipients at Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, who survived for more than one month after transplantation, 217 heart and 33 heart and lung patients were investigated serologically for evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Six patients acquired primary T gondii infection, most probably from the donor organ. Five patients experienced T gondii recrudescence, two of whom had recovered from primary infection a few years earlier. Two patients died from primary T gondii infection and the severity of symptoms in the other patients with primary infection was related to the amount of immunosuppressive treatment. Prophylaxis with pyrimethamine (25 mg a day for six weeks) was introduced for T gondii antibody negative transplant recipients who received a heart from a T gondii antibody positive donor after the first four cases of primary toxoplasmosis. Of the seven patients not given pyrimethamine, four (57%) acquired primary T gondii infection. This compared with two of the 14 patients (14%) given prophylaxis.
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