Acute exanthema occurs in patients who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive before they become seropositive. The patients have influenza like symptoms and a macular skin rash on the upper trunk. Histopathological investigation of skin punch biopsy specimens from four patients with acute HIV exanthema showed a normal epidermis and a sparse dermal, mainly perivascular, lymphocytic/histiocytic infiltrate around vessels of the superficial plexus. Histopathological changes of the exanthema of acute HIV infection are non-specific and resemble those of other acute viral exanthema, but when both the histopathological features and the clinical picture are suggestive, the clinician should take into consideration the possibility of HIV infection.
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