The case records and pathology of all children with kidney tumours treated in the West Midlands Health Authority Region (WMHAR) from 1957 to 1986 were reviewed. The histology was reviewed by a panel of three paediatric pathologists. Thirteen (6%) out of 211 cases were considered to have congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN). Nine were of the conventional type, three of the atypical cellular type, and one mixed. DNA ploidy was investigated and showed two of the tumours to be aneuploid and nine diploid (tissue was not available in the two other cases). The two aneuploid tumours were of atypical cellular and mixed histology, respectively; the diploid tumours were of the conventional type in eight cases and atypical cellular in one. The atypical cellular type has been reported to behave more aggressively, but the benefit of additional treatment after surgery to prevent recurrence remains unclear. Measurement of DNA content by flow cytometry, together with histological subclassification, may be useful in selecting patients who will benefit from further treatment after surgery.
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