An enzyme isotopic assay was used to determine the histamine concentration in the gastric mucosa of patients positive for Helicobacter pylori with (n = 11) and without duodenal ulceration (n = 9) and in negative controls (n = 7). A significant difference was observed when the histamine content of H pylori negative subjects was compared with that of positive patients. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in histamine concentration between H pylori positive patients with duodenal ulceration and those without duodenal ulceration. H pylori positive patients with and without duodenal ulceration had significantly lower gastric histamine concentrations than H pylori negative subjects. The lower gastric histamine concentration observed in H pylori positive patients might be due to increased histamine release which could in turn induce increased gastric acid secretion.