Three cases of mesenteric lipodystrophy with a wide range of clinicopathological features are reported. Mesenteric lipodystrophy may present as an acute abdomen or with non-specific upper abdominal symptoms. Routine biochemical and haematological investigations are within normal limits. Histological examination shows lipid-filled macrophages in sheets and bands with focal cyst formation. Mesenteric lipodystrophy is a rare condition. A firm diagnosis can be reached only by histological examination and a number of conditions need to be considered in the differential diagnosis.