There are an increasing number of published reports of patients with acquired immunodeficiency without evidence of HIV infection, who have been labelled as having "idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia". The case is reported here of a young man who presented with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), CD4+ lymphopenia, and hypogammaglobulinaemia attributable to common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The presentation of this condition, with many of the clinical and laboratory features of AIDS, highlights CVID as a diagnosis to be considered in the differential diagnosis of CD4+ lymphocytopenia.
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