J Clin Pathol 55:569-574 doi:10.1136/jcp.55.8.569
  • Review

Angiogenesis, thrombospondin, and ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

  1. A Rice1,
  2. C M Quinn2
  1. 1Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP, UK
  2. 2Irish National Breast Screening Programme and St Vincent’s University Hospital, Elm Park, Donnybrook, Dublin 4, Ireland
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr A Rice, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3, UK;
  • Accepted 19 February 2002


Angiogenesis, the growth of new vessels from existing vasculature, plays an essential role in tumour development. The process involves interaction between a variety of cells, growth factors, and components of the extracellular matrix, regulated by pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. This review profiles these factors, outlines the available methods for measuring new vessel formation, and discusses the importance of angiogenesis in breast cancer, with emphasis on ductal carcinoma in situ.