Diabetic nephropathy is a common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. It is characterised by diffuse or nodular glomerulosclerosis, afferent and efferent hyaline arteriolosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis and atrophy. Diffuse and nodular diabetic glomerulosclerosis share similar histological features with other clinical conditions. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy studies, and clinicopathological correlation are essential to differentiate diabetic nephropathy from other conditions that result in diffuse and nodular glomerulosclerosis.
- GBM, glomerular basement membrane
- ING, idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis
- MIDD, monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease
- PAS, periodic acid Schiff
- TBM, tubular basement membrane
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Competing interests: None declared.