Background: The antiapoptotic and epithelial–mesenchymal transition activities of Twist have been implicated in the neoplastic transformation and the development of metastasis, respectively. Upregulation of Twist, described in several types of human cancer, also acts as a prognostic marker of poor outcome.
Aim: To investigate Twist expression in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its prognostic value in a Chinese cohort of patients with oesophageal SCC.
Methods: Twist expression in primary oesophageal SCC of 87 Chinese patients was investigated by immunohistochemical staining. Twist protein level in one immortalised normal oesophageal epithelial cell line and six oesophageal SCC cell lines was measured by western blot analysis. Twist mRNA level in 30 pairs of frozen specimens of primary oesophageal SCC and non-neoplastic oesophageal epithelium from the upper resection margin of corresponding oesophagectomy specimen was also determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR.
Results: It was found that Twist was upregulated in oesophageal SCC cell lines, and its mRNA and protein levels were both increased in oesophageal SCC and the non-neoplastic oesophageal epithelium (p<0.001). In addition, a high level of Twist expression in oesophageal SCC was significantly associated with a greater risk for the patient of developing distant metastasis within 1 year of oesophagectomy (OR 3.462, 95% CI 1.201 to 9.978; p = 0.022).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that upregulation of Twist plays a role in the neoplastic transformation to oesophageal SCC and subsequent development of distant metastasis. Twist may serve as a useful prognostic marker for predicting the development of distant metastasis in oesophageal SCC.
- EMT, epithelial–mesenchymal transition
- FBS, fetal bovine serum
- RT-PCR, reverse transcription-PCR
- SCC, squamous cell carcinoma
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Published Online First 1 August 2006
Competing interests: None declared.
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