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The prognostic value of Ki-67 expression in penile squamous cell carcinoma

Abstract

Aims To determine whether Ki-67 immunoexpression in penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) has a prognostic value and correlates with lymph node metastasis, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and patient survival.

Methods 148 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded PSCC samples were tissue-microarrayed, including 97 usual-type SCCs, 17 basaloid, 15 pure verrucous carcinomas, 2 warty and 17 mixed-type tumours. All samples were immunostained for Ki-67 protein. HPV DNA was detected with INNO-LiPA assay. Follow-up data were available for 134 patients.

Results Ki-67 was strongly expressed in 57/148 (38.5%) of PSCCs. Different cancer subtypes showed significant difference in Ki-67 expression (p<0.0001) with highest positivity in basaloid, 16/17 (94%), followed by usual type, 38/97 (39%) and lack of Ki-67 positive cases within verrucous tumours, 0/15. Ki-67 positively correlated with high-risk HPV (p<0.0001) and showed good specificity (84%) but low sensitivity (61%) for high-risk HPV detection. Ki-67 protein strongly positively correlated with tumour grade (p<0.0001) but not with stage (p=0.2193), or lymph node status (p=0.7366). Ki-67 showed no prognostic value for cancer-specific survival (HR=1.00, 95%, CI 0.99 to 1.02, p=0.54) or overall survival (HR=1.00, 95%, CI 0.99 to 1.02, p=0.45). High tumour stage, lymph node metastasis, high tumour grade and age at diagnosis were all independent prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival and overall survival.

Conclusions Ki-67 is only a moderate surrogate marker for HPV infection in PSCC. It does not show prognostic value for cancer-specific survival and overall survival in PSCC.

  • Ki-67
  • penile squamous cell carcinoma
  • lymph node metastasis
  • HPV
  • cancer research
  • penis
  • prostate
  • ageing
  • agnors
  • urinary tract tumours
  • testis
  • genitourinary pathology
  • bladder
  • urogenital pathology
  • kidney
  • cytopathology
  • uropathology
  • histopathology

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