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Subcellular localisation of anillin is associated with different survival outcomes in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma
  1. Peir-In Liang1,
  2. Wan Tzu Chen1,
  3. Chien-Feng Li2,3,4,5,
  4. Ching-Chia Li6,7,8,9,
  5. Wei-Ming Li6,8,9,10,
  6. Chun-Nung Huang6,9,
  7. Hsin-Chih Yeh6,7,8,9,
  8. Hung-Lung Ke6,8,9,
  9. Wen-Jeng Wu6,8,9,11,
  10. Chee-Yin Chai1,8,12,13
  1. 1Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  2. 2Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan
  3. 3National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, Taiwan
  4. 4Department of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan
  5. 5Institute of Clinical Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  6. 6Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  7. 7Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  8. 8Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  9. 9Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  10. 10Pingtung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Executive Yuan, Pingtung, Taiwan
  11. 11Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  12. 12Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  13. 13Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Chee-Yin Chai, Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, No. 100, Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan; ccjtsai{at}yahoo.com

Abstract

Background The protein anillin (ANLN) has important roles in cell cytokinesis. Until now, no studies have evaluated the role of ANLN expression in a large cohort of patients with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UCUT).

Methods This study analysed 156 cases of primary localised UCUT. Pathological slides were reviewed and clinical findings were collected. An immunohistochemical study was performed and the cytoplasmic and nuclear staining results of UCUT were recorded. Expressions of ANLN were analysed to identify correlations with various clinicopathological parameters, disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS).

Results Overexpression of ANLN in the nucleus had significant positive associations with tumour stage (p=0.017), histological grade (p=0.040), mitotic count (p=0.023), tumour necrosis (p=0.009), invasion patterns (p<0.001) and simultaneous involvement of the renal pelvis and ureter (p=0.032). Overexpression of ANLN in the cytoplasm had a significant negative correlation with patient age (p=0.004), tumour grade (p=0.021) and vascular invasion (p=0.013). Notably, univariable analysis showed that overexpression of ANLN in the nucleus was significantly associated with a poor DSS (p=0.006) and MeFS (p=0.010), and multivariable analysis showed that it was an independent predictor of adverse DSS outcome (p=0.031, relative risk 1.535). Low expression of ANLN in the cytoplasm was strongly associated with a poor DSS (p=0.045) and MeFS (p=0.041) in univariable analysis but not in Cox regression analysis.

Conclusions Subcellular localisation of ANLN is correlated with different tumour phenotypes and probably confers different tumorigenicity. Since high nuclear expression of ANLN is also an independent predictor of poor DSS, it is a useful prognostic marker of UCUT.

  • TUMOUR MARKERS
  • URINARY TRACT TUMOURS
  • UROPATHOLOGY

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