Penile carcinoma is a rare genitourinary malignancy in North America and Europe with highest rates recorded in South America, Africa and Asia. Recent classifications have refined the terminology used in classifying intraepithelial/in situ lesions and additionally newer entities have been recognised in the invasive category. While increasing recognition of a bimodal pathway of penile carcinogenesis has facilitated understanding and classification of these tumours, handling and subtyping of penile malignancies presents a challenge to the reporting pathologist, in part due to their rarity. This article reviews the terminology and classification of in situ and invasive carcinomas and their relationship to human papilloma virus status. In addition, associated non-neoplastic dermatological conditions of relevance and appropriate ancillary investigations will be addressed.
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