The past decade of scientific research has seen a proliferation of information regarding the identification and biophysical properties of gap junctions and their constituents, connexin proteins. Advances in biological research techniques have elucidated a ubiquitous distribution and dynamic regulation of connexins and gap junctions. The gap junction is the primary component of the electrical synapse which couples cells together morphologically and functionally. Their importance to homeostasis is reflected by the observance of their dysfunction in a myriad of pathologies. Singular studies noting an etiological association of connexins and gap junctions in pathologies have also been rapidly accumulating. This paper will circumscribe these studies of pathology and connexins to review their clinical implications.