NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, highly lethal cancer that occurs in children and adults of all ages. NMCs uniformly present in the midline, most commonly in the head, neck, or mediastinum, as poorly differentiated carcinomas with variable degrees of squamous differentiation. This tumor is defined by rearrangement of the Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) gene on chromosome 15q14. In most cases, NUT is involved in a balanced translocation with the BRD4 gene on chromosome 19p13.1, an event that creates a BRD4-NUT fusion gene. Variant rearrangements, some involving the BRD3 gene, occur in the remaining cases. NMC is diagnosed by detection of NUT rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization or RT-PCR. Due its rarity and lack of characteristic histologic features, most cases of NMC currently go unrecognized.
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