Increasingly in the field of medicine, new therapeutic modalities, both surgical and non-surgical, are being introduced. Some of these may significantly alter the pathological appearance of normal and neoplastic tissue and result in problems for the pathologist. In this review, we describe iatrogenic pathology within the female genital tract, especially concentrating on the recent literature. We also review pathological artifacts within the female genital tract. Topics covered include mechanical displacement of normal and neoplastic elements into vascular or tissue spaces and thermal artifacts. We discuss recently described pathological findings in neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue secondary to hormonal, chemotherapeutic and other medications. Changes associated with non-surgical management of uterine leiomyomas are also described. It behoves the pathologist to be aware of these iatrogenic lesions and artifacts in order to prevent diagnostic errors.