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Molecular Pathology of Endometrial Carcinoma: Practical aspects from the diagnostic and therapeutical view points
  1. David Llobet
  1. Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-IRBLleida, Spain
    1. Judith Pallarés
    1. Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-IRBLleida, Spain
      1. Andreé Yeramian
      1. Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-IRBLleida, Spain
        1. Maria Santacana
        1. Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-IRBLleida, Spain
          1. Nuria Eritja
          1. Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-IRBLleida, Spain
            1. Ana Velasco
            1. Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-IRBLleida, Spain
              1. Xavier Dolcet
              1. Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-IRBLleida, Spain
                1. Xavier Matias-Guiu (xmatias{at}arnau.scs.es)
                1. Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-IRBLleida, Spain

                  Abstract

                  This article reviews the main molecular alterations involved in Endometrial Carcinoma. Five molecular features (microsatellite instability, and mutations in the PTEN, k-RAS, PIK3CA, and beta-catenin genes) are characteristic of Endometrioid Carcinomas, whereas Non-Endometrioid Carcinomas show alterations of p53, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on several chromosomes, as well as other molecular alterations (STK15, p16, E-cadherin and C-erb B2). The review also covers the phenomenon of apoptosis resistance, as well as the results obtained from cDNA array studies, and the perspectives for targeted therapies. Finally, a group of practical applications of molecular pathology techniques are also mentioned. These include: 1) Diagnosis of Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer syndrome in patients with endometrial carcinoma, 2) evaluation of precursor lesions, 3) Prognosis, 4) Diagnosis, particularly for synchronous endometrioid carcinomas of the uterus and the ovaries, and 5) Targeted therapies.

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