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Approach to a lung transplant biopsy
  1. David M Hwang1,*,
  2. Samuel A Yousem2
  1. 1 University Health Network/University of Toronto, Canada;
  2. 2 University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, United States
  1. Correspondence to: David Hwang, University Health Network/University of Toronto, Department of Pathology, Toronto General Hospital, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4, Canada; david.hwang{at}


With increasing numbers of lung transplants being performed worldwide, lung transplant allograft biopsies are becoming increasingly common. The evaluation of lung transplant biopsies typically focuses on the assessment of allograft rejection and infection, but other entities may also be seen in biopsy material. We present here an approach to lung transplant biopsies, in which we overview major diagnostic entities that may be encountered and discuss findings that may present interpretive challenges.

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