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Heart Transplant Biopsies: Interpretation and Significance
  1. Vidhya Nair1,
  2. Jagdish Butany2,*
  1. 1 University of toronto, Mcmaster University, Canada;
  2. 2 University of Toronto, Canada
  1. Correspondence to: Jagdish Butany, PATHOLOGY, University of Toronto/University Health Network, University of Toronto/University Health Network, Department of Pathology, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, /M5G 2C4, Canada; jagdish.butany{at}


Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is the gold standard for monitoring the graft heart following orthotopic heart transplantation. An established modality for the diagnosis of cardiac disease, the EMB has gained increasing “popularity” as the standard for monitoring patients post cardiac transplant.1,2 At most centres, patients undergo regularly scheduled biopsies, performed every week initially and then every three months for the rest of the patient’s life. The analysis and diagnosis of EMB based graft rejection is critical for the appropriate and timely modulation of immunosuppression protocols.

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