Table 1

Clinicopathological characteristics of ovarian tumours

FrequencyMean ageLaterality
(mean size)
StageMacroMicroGradeChemoresponse 5-year
survival
Differential
diagnosis
Primary ovarian malignancies
HGSC70%63BilateralIII–IVPapillary, solid-cystic with necrosis and haemorrhageSolid, papillary and glandular growth of large cells with pleomorphic nuclei and prominent nucleoli. Brisk mitotic activityHighGood30%EMC, CCC, TCC, LGSC
LGSC3%–5%53BilateralIIICystic, papillary with calcificationsSmall nest or micropapillae of uniform cells with mild–moderate atypia within stroma. Psammoma bodies. Associated with SBTLowModerate85%HGSC, CCC, SBT
EMC10%–15%58Unilateral
(15 cm)
ISolid or Solid-cysticBack-to-back tubular or cribriform glands, focally mucinous, secretory or squamoid endometriosisLowGood78%MC, HGSC, metastasis
CCC5%–10%55Unilateral
(15 cm)
ISolid-cysticTubulocystic, papillary and solid growth, clear cuboidal cells, sometimes eosinophilic, papillae hyalinised stroma, with endometriosisHighPoor75%HGSC, mixed HGSC/EMC, LGSC, YST
MC3%45Unilateral
(>12 cm)
ISolid-cysticVariably atypical cells with expansile or destructive invasive pattern. Heterogeneous tumours with benign, MBT and carcinoma featuresLowPoor>90%Metastasis
SMCRare40–50BilateralISolid or solid-cysticMixture of Müllerian cell phenotypes associated with SMBTLowNAPoorHGSC, EMC
MMMT2%60Unilateral
(14 cm)
IIISolid with necrosis and haemorrhageHGSC or EMC component plus sarcomatous component, either non-specific or heterologous (chondro, rhabdomyo, osteo, lipo)HighModerate15%–30%HGSC, EMC with spindle elements
GCT1%53Unilateral
(10 cm)
ISolid-cysticDiffuse, trabecular, insular or microfollicular growth pattern of uniform small cells with round to oval nuclei, rare grooves and scant pale cytoplasmLowModerate60%HGSC, SCC-HT
SCC-HTRare20Unilateral
(15 cm)
IIISolid-cystic, pale with necrosis and haemorrhageDiffuse pattern with follicle-like spaces, small homogeneous hyperchromatic cells, mitotically active, sometimes with intermingled larger eosinophilic cells with large nuclei and prominent nucleiHighModerate40%HGSC, GCT
Metastatic adenocarcinoma*
ColorectalCommon70Bilateral
(12 cm)
IVSolid, friable with necrosis and haemorrhageSmall or large glands, often cribriform, composed of non-mucinous atypical cells with central dirty necrosisHighNAPoorMC
BiliopancreaticRare60BilateralIVSolid-cysticSmall or large glands into desmoplastic stroma or scarce stromaVariableNAPoorMC, MBLT
MammaryCommon49Bilateral
(<5 cm)
IVSolidDuctal or lobular carcinoma
(with a 3:1 proportion)
HighNAPoorEMC
AppendicealRare45Bilateral
(15/11 cm)
IVMulticystic and mucoid or solid and firmLow-grade mucinous neoplasm with abundant mucin or mucinous adenocarcinoma, that is, goblet cell carcinoid, signet ring carcinoma or intestinal-type adenocarcinomaLow/highNAGood or poorMC, MBLT
GastricCommon43Bilateral
(12 cm)
IVSolid, firm, oedematousSignet ring cells arranged in tubules or sheets and intestinal-type glandsHighNAPoorMC
EndocervicalRare43Unilateral
(13 cm)
IVSolid, nodularEndometrioid or mucinous glands with villoglandular, papillary and cribriform architecture, composed of atypical cells with hyperchromatic elongated nuclei, apoptotic bodies and many mitosisHighNAFavourableMC, MBLT
UterineCommonNABilateral
(<5 cm)
IIIaSolid, nodularEndometrioid or serous carcinoma with lymphovascular emboliHighNAPoorMC, EMC
  • *Typically, metastatic mucinous carcinomas are bilateral, smaller (<12 cm), with nodular growth pattern and with ovarian surface involvement.

  • CCC, clear cell carcinoma; EMC, endometrioid carcinoma; GCT, granulosa cell tumour; HGSC, high-grade serous carcinoma; LGSC, low-grade serous carcinoma;  MBLT, mucinous borderline tumour; MC, mucinous carcinoma; MMMT, malignant mixed Müllerian tumour; NA, not available; SBT, serous borderline tumour; SCC-HT, small cell carcinoma of hypercalcaemic type; SMC, seromucinous carcinoma; TCC, transitional cell carcinoma; USC, uterine serous carcinoma; YST, yolk sac tumour.