Table 3

Biomarkers in chondrosarcoma

Tissue enchondromaChondrosarcomaCell line
Secreted protein
 AdiponectinIncreased by stagingExist
 AmphiregulinIncreased by stagingExist
 Brain-derived neurotrophic factorIncreased by stagingExist
 LeptinIncreased by stagingExist
 PeriostinNoExist
 S100Exist
 VEGF-AIncreased by stagingExist
 VEGF-CIncreased by stagingExist
Signalling molecule
 AMACRExistNo
 BMPR2Increased by staging
 HOTAIRIncreased by stagingExist
 RUNX2Increased by staging
 S1PDecreased
 Sirtuin-1ExistExist
 SurvivinExist
Nuclear factor
 SOX4Increased by stagingExist
 SOX9ExistDecreasedDecreased
  • AMACR, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase; S1P, sphingosine-1-phosphate; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.