A series of prostates has been studied cytologically by making smears directly from surgically excised glands. The cytological findings in these smears are described. Benign conditions of the prostate can be readily diagnosed by this means but it is not a satisfactory method for finding latent carcinomas. In addition, the cells in the smears obtained from the excised glands were compared with the cells found in smears obtained by prostatic massage from a series of patients attending with prostatic disorders. It was found that direct smears from prostatectomy specimens give a useful indication of the types of benign cells which may be found in smears obtained by massage. They provide help in the differentiation of malignant from benign epithelium in the massage specimens although they give little indication of the appearances of the malignant cells themselves.
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