Seventy-five sera collected from leprosy patients in England were tested for Australia antigen and antibody. Australia antigen was detected in only two patients with lepromatous leprosy and in one patient with borderline pure leprosy. Antibody to Australia antigen was found in one patient with lepromatous leprosy. These findings differ from previous reports and it is suggested that the frequency of Australia antigen in lepromatous leprosy is a function of the incidence of this antigen in the general population rather than increased genetic susceptibility to chronic infection.
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