In two out of three cases of idiopathic fibrosis of the mediastinum there was also retroperitoneal fibrosis, and in one of them extensive fibrosis of the lungs. One of these, a fit middle-aged man, died suddenly with severe coronary artery stenosis due to fibrosis. The third case was that of a young man with a solitary fibrous mass around the right lower lobe bronchus mimicking a malignant tumour and producing bronchial stenosis. Of the various hypotheses about the aetiology and pathogenesis of the fibrous proliferation, that of an autoimmune process seemed the most likely in these cases.
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