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Human rotavirus antigen detection by enzyme-immunoassay with antisera against Nebraska calf diarrhoea virus.
  1. H K Sarkkinen


    A four-layer solid phase enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) with antisera against Nebraska calf diarrhoea virus (NCDV) as immunoreagents was developed to detect human rotavirus antigens from stool specimens of patients with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. Polystyrene beads were used as the solid phase, guinea-pig and rabbit anti-NCDV immunoglobulin as the catching and secondary antibody, and peroxidase-conjugated swine anti-rabbit immunoglobulin as the indicator antibody. A comparison of the developed NCDV-EIA with an identical EIA, using antisera against human rotavirus (HRV-EIA) instead of NCDV antisera, was made with 216 stool specimens positive or negative for rotavirus. A complete agreement was obtained between the two methods provided that appropriate confirmatory tests were included. The developed NCDV-EIA was as sensitive and specific for rotavirus as the HRV-EIA, and it allowed the detection of both established rotavirus types 1 and 2 from stools with equal sensitivity. The difficulties in cultivating human rotavirus in vitro for immunisation and the relative ease of growing NCDV in widely-used continuous cell lines make NCDV a good alternative in the preparation of the highly specific and sensitive rotavirus antisera required in immunoassays, and facilitate the setting-up methods for the routine diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis by EIA or RIA in diagnostic virus laboratories.

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