The diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal candidiasis by brush cytology was studied in two groups. In eight immunosuppressed patients clinically suspected to have candidiasis, fungal infection was confirmed on six occasions, and a diagnosis of herpetic oesophagitis was established in the other two cases. Among 482 gastric and oesophageal brushings clinically unsuspected candidiasis was found on a further 12 occasions. Coexisting abnormalities including carcinoma, lymphoma, and postradiation oesophagitis were also identified by brushing. Of the 18 patients with cytologically confirmed candidiasis, endoscopic biopsies were available in 13, but histological diagnosis of fungal infection was possible in only two (15.5%).
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