In a retrospective three year study 13 cases of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) (seven female, six male) were found in 724 gallbladders (1.8%), an estimated incidence of 1.7 cases per 100,000 population per annum. Symptoms often began with an episode of acute cholecystitis and persisted for up to five years. There was extension of xanthogranulomatous tissue into adjacent organs in nine cases. Three patients had fistulae from the gallbladder, one to skin, and two to the duodenum; this is the first report of this complication in XGC. In two patients XGC sufficiently resembled carcinoma for the surgeon to request intraoperative frozen section diagnosis. There was a high rate of postoperative infective complication, with one subphrenic abscess and three wound infections (one fatal), two in patients with fistulae.
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