The incidence and morbidity of viral and Toxoplasma gondii infections were studied in 40 children who underwent liver transplantation between December 1983 and February 1988. The incidence of primary and reactivated cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was 19% and 47%, respectively; primary infection caused clinical disease in all five cases affected and was fatal in one. Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection occurred in 10 (26%) recipients but caused only mild disease. No reactivated EBV infection was recorded and no lymphoproliferative disorders associated with EBV were found after a maximum of four years' follow up. Adenovirus infection occurred in seven (18%) patients; this was associated in one case with fatal pneumonia and fulminant hepatitis, but otherwise with only mild respiratory disease. Primary T gondii infection was detected in one patient who remained asymptomatic. Other viruses causing infection included herpes simplex, varicella zoster, and respiratory syncytial virus. Surveillance for these infections and the long term sequelae should be included in the follow up of all children who undergo transplantation.
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