A short series of biochemical and serological tests were developed for the rapid presumptive identification of "Streptococcus milleri group" isolates. One hundred and seventy seven streptococcal isolates were recovered from the mouths of 10 out of 12 healthy adult volunteers by use of a simple sampling procedure and a single selective medium. In all, 127 oral "S milleri group" isolates were identified by biochemical and serological tests, confirming the indigenous nature of these streptococci in the mouth. Most (70.1%) of "S milleri group" isolates were non-haemolytic, 26% were alpha-haemolytic, and 3.9% beta-haemolytic. Fifty four (42.5%) were serologically typable, of which 46 were Lancefield group F, suggesting that the mouth is an important source of Lancefield group F streptococci. A collection of group F streptococci from a range of sources was indistinguishable from a collection of oral "S milleri group" isolates on the basis of the tests used, supporting the general synonymity of group F streptococcus with the broader "S milleri group". The battery of tests was cheap and simple to perform, and was capable of identifying "S milleri group" isolates from a range of sources, including variants with wide sugar fermentation patterns.
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