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Blood exchanged in ritual ceremonies as a possible route for infection with hepatitis C virus.
  1. H I Atrah,
  2. F A Ala,
  3. D Gough
  1. West Midlands Regional Blood Transfusion Service, Edgbaston, Birmingham.


    Of 52 blood donors (25 men and 27 women) counselled because their donation tested positive for hepatitis C virus antibody, seven (13.5%) gave a history of practising the ritual of blood exchange in their childhood or early adult life. This practice can cause transmission of blood borne infections or alloimmunisation, or both.

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