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Seqenenre Taa II, the violent death of a pharaoh
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  1. R L ten Berge,
  2. F R W van de Goot
  1. Department of Pathology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands; rl.tenberge@vumc.nl

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    A rude letter from Apophis, ruler of the Hyksos invaders, complaining about the snoring of the hippopotami in the sacred pool at Thebes1 initiated the war that ultimately led to the restoration of the rule of the pharaos in Egypt in the 16th century BC. Unfortunately, this war also led to the death of the addressee, Seqenenre Taa II, 14th pharaoh of the Theban dynasty.

    Thirty four centuries later, the pharaoh's mummy has become the subject of forensic pathological interest and speculation. Found in 1881, it is in a badly damaged, disarticulated condition, but nevertheless shows remarkable details. Five different wounds to the head have been identified, including two perforating impression fractures of …

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