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Changes produced in the urothelium by traditional and newer therapeutic procedures for bladder cancer
  1. A Lopez-Beltran1,
  2. R J Luque2,
  3. R Mazzucchelli3,
  4. M Scarpelli3,
  5. R Montironi3
  1. 1Department of Pathology, Reina Sofia University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
  2. 2Department of Pathology, Hospital Princesa de España, 23071 Jaen, Spain
  3. 3Institute of Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology, Ancona University School of Medicine, 60020 Torrette, Ancona, Italy
  1. Correspondence to:
 Professor R Montironi, Institute of Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology, School of Medicine, University of Ancona, Azienda Ospedaliera Umberto I°, 60020 Torrette, Ancona, Italy;


A handful of traditional and newer therapeutic procedures, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, photodynamic and laser treatment, and gene therapy, are used to treat epithelial malignancies of bladder origin. These treatment modalities, used either intravesically or systemically, produce morphological changes in the urothelial mucosa that can be mistaken for carcinoma. The pathologist must be able to separate toxic and drug related alterations from tumour related changes. The clinical history is usually invaluable in this assessment.

  • bladder cancer
  • chemotherapy
  • immunotherapy
  • radiotherapy
  • gene therapy
  • BCG, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin
  • CIS, carcinoma in situ
  • IFN, interferon
  • IL, interleukin
  • TURB, transurethral resection of the bladder

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