Examination of the human placenta
The human placenta is an underexamined organ. The clinical indications for placental examination have no gold standards. There is also inconsistency in the histological reports and the quality is variable. There is great interobserver variability concerning the different entities. Although there are still grey areas in clinicopathological associations, a few mainstream observations have now been clarified. The histopathological examination and diagnosis of the placenta may provide crucial information. It is possible to highlight treatable maternal conditions and identify placental or fetal conditions that can be recurrent or inherited. To achieve optimal benefit from placental reports, it is essential to standardise the method of placenta examination. This article summarises the clinical indications for placenta referral and the most common acknowledged clinicopathological correlations.
- AAA, arterio–arterial anastomosis
- AVA, arterio–venous anastomosis
- IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction
- VVA, veno–venous anastomosis
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