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Amyloid in the cardiovascular system: a review
  1. I Kholová*,
  2. H W M Niessen
  1. Department of Pathology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, De Boelelaan 1117, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr H W M Niessen
 Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Department of Pathology, De Boelelaan 1117, Room 1B116, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands;


The cardiovascular system is a common target of amyloidosis. This review presents the current clinical and diagnostic approach to amyloidosis, with the emphasis on cardiovascular involvement. It summarises recent nomenclature, classification, and pathogenesis of amyloidosis. In addition, non-invasive possibilities are discussed, together with endomyocardial biopsies in the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Finally, recent advances in treatment and prognostic implications are presented.

  • ANF, atrial natriuretic factor
  • IAA, isolated atrial amyloidosis
  • SAA, serum amyloid A
  • SSA, systemic senile amyloidosis
  • TTR, transthyretin

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  • * Present address: A.I Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland