A 47 year old Chinese man with diabetes mellitus and previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis presented with painless right testicular enlargement of 1 month’s duration. He underwent an orchidectomy for presumed testicular neoplasm corroborated clinicoradiologically. Histological examination of the testicular mass revealed an inflammatory lesion comprising lymphocytes, plasma cells and sheets of pale staining histiocytes, some containing lymphocytes within their ample cytoplasm, suggestive of emperipolesis. S100 immunohistochemistry stained the histiocytes, while ultrastructural examination confirmed emperipolesis. A diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease was made, an exceedingly rare testicular lesion. Clinicoradiological findings mimicked a neoplasm, while the inflammatory histological appearances with occasionally discerned multinucleated cells raised the possibility of xanthogranulomatous orchitis. Tuberculous orchitis was excluded through negative Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR for mycobacterium, while seminoma, which sometimes features a predominant inflammatory component obscuring neoplastic cells, was excluded by absent immunostaining for placental alkaline phosphatase and CD117.
- RDD, Rosai-Dorfman disease
- XO, xanthogranulomatous orchitis
- Rosai-Dorfman disease
- testicular neoplasm
- xanthogranulomatous orchitis
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