Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Expression of KAI1 and tenascin, and microvessel density are closely correlated with liver metastasis of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma
  1. Huachuan Zheng1,
  2. Koichi Tsuneyama1,
  3. Chunmei Cheng2,
  4. Hiroyuki Takahashi1,
  5. Zhengguo Cui1,
  6. Kazuhiro Nomoto1,
  7. Yoshihiro Murai1,
  8. Yasuo Takano1
  1. 1Department of Pathology (1), Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
  2. 2Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr K Tsuneyama
    Department of Pathology (1) and 21st Century COE Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Sugitani 2630, Toyama, Japan; ktsune{at}


Aim: To seek good markers to predict invasion and metastasis of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma (GIA).

Methods: Expression of KAI1 and tenascin were examined on tissue microarrays containing gastric adenocarcinoma (n = 98), colorectal adenocarcinoma (n = 125), gastric adjacent non-cancerous mucosa (n = 95) and colorectal adjacent non-cancerous mucosa (n = 112) by immunostaining. Microvessel density (MVD) in GIA was labelled using anti-CD34 antibody by immunostaining. Expression of KAI1 and tenascin, and MVD were compared with clinicopathological features of tumours, including PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homology deleted from human chromosome 10) and EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) expression.

Results: KAI1 expression was higher in GIAs than in their adjacent non-cancerous mucosa (p<0.05). KAI1 and tenascin expression showed a significantly negative association with liver metastasis of GIA (p<0.05), but not with depth of invasion, venous invasion or lymph node metastasis (p>0.05). A significantly negative relationship was observed between EMMPRIN and tenascin expression in GIA (p<0.05). MVD was positively correlated with depth of invasion, venous invasion, lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis of tumours (p<0.05), whereas it was negatively correlated with PTEN expression (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Up-regulated KAI1 expression may play an important part in malignant transformation of gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Reduced expression of KAI1 and tenascin might underlie the molecular basis of liver metastasis of GIA. Angiogenesis is a key event in the invasion and metastasis of GIA. These markers might be used to indicate liver metastasis of GIA in clinicopathological practice.

  • DAB, 3,3′-diaminobenzidine
  • ECM, extracellular matrix
  • EMMPRIN, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer
  • GIA, gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma
  • H&E, haematoxylin and eosin
  • MMPs, matrix metalloproteinases
  • MVD, microvessel density
  • PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homology deleted from human chromosome 10
  • TMA, tissue microarray
  • TM4SF, transmembane glycoproteins of tetraspanins family
  • VEGF, vascular epithelial growth factor

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Published Online First 12 May 2006

  • Funding: This work was partially supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 14770072 and 15922084 and the 21st Century COE Program in Japan.

  • Competing interests: None.