Article Text

This article has a correction. Please see:

Download PDFPDF
Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research
  1. M Hooper
  1. Correspondence to:
 M Hooper
 School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, Fleming Building, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, SR1 3SD UK; malcolm.hooper{at}


This review examines research findings in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis in light of the current debate about this chronic multiple-symptom, multiorgan, multisystem illness and the conflicting views in medicine. These issues cannot be separated from the political opinions and assertions that conflict with science and medicine, and will be part of this review as they have enormous consequences for scientific and medical research, patients, clinicians, carers and policy makers.

  • CBT, cognitive-behavioural therapy
  • CFS, chronic fatigue syndrome
  • GET, graded exercise therapy
  • ME myalgic encephalomyelitis,
  • ME/CFS, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
  • WHO, World Health Organization

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • i This was an initiative of the Norfolk and East Anglia ME Association. Copies are available at cost from Jeff{at}

  • ii This paper builds on the Peckerman paper, and using tests to evaluate ATP synthesis, translocation and utilisation provides a coherent basis for treatment with ribose, l-carnitine, CoQ 10, niacinamide and magnesium

  • Competing interests: None.

  • My thanks to Margaret Williams and Horace Reid for their help with the preparation of this document.

Linked Articles

  • Notice
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Association of Clinical Pathologists