Cerebral toxoplasmosis can occur outside the setting of advanced HIV immunodeficiency or drug-induced immunosuppression. A case of cerebral toxoplasmosis is reported in a previously healthy 41-year-old man who was found to have a genetic defect in CD40 ligand, resulting in the X linked hyper-IgM syndrome despite normal surface protein expression on flow cytometry. This highlights the fact that primary immunodeficiencies can first present late in life with a relatively mild phenotype and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections in non-HIV infected patients; in addition, normal protein expression does not necessarily rule out hypomorphic mutations.
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