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Autoimmune pancytopenia following combination chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia


Autoimmune haemolysis or thrombocytopenia can complicate purine nucleoside monotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), but Evans syndrome is rare. This is a report of the occurrence of pancytopenia secondary to a unique combination of red cell aplasia with autoimmune thrombocytopenia and neutropenia in a patient with CLL following treatment with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. This case is unusual for the simultaneous targeting of three haemopoietic lineages by immune dysfunction following fludarabine and cyclophosphamide, which is a treatment regimen believed to reduce autoimmune haematological toxicity in CLL.

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