Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) has been characterised by the World Health Organization as a new entity. This report describes an unusual case of PBL in a 3-year-old HIV-infected patient showing a cutaneous vulvar lesion with 9 months of evolution and prolapsed vulvovaginal mucosa. Histopathological examination of a biopsy sample showed diffuse submucosal infiltration by large cells with a cohesive growth pattern, and round and vesicular nuclei with fine chromatin centrally or eccentrically placed with one or more prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemical staining in neoplastic cells was positive for multiple melanoma oncogene (MUM1), CD138, CD45 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). The diagnosis was PBL, stage III. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) expression was positive by EBV encoded RNAs in situ hybridisation. This is believed to be the third case of paediatric HIV-associated PBL reported in the literature, and the first with vulvar localisation, which is a new anatomical location for this entity.
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