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Approach to a lung transplant biopsy
  1. D M Hwang1,
  2. S A Yousem2
  1. 1
    Department of Pathology, University Health Network, and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  2. 2
    Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center-Presbyterian, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
  1. Correspondence to David M Hwang, Department of Pathology, Toronto General Hospital, Room 11E423, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2C4; David.Hwang{at}


With increasing numbers of lung transplants being performed worldwide, lung transplant allograft biopsies are becoming increasingly common. The evaluation of lung transplant biopsies typically focuses on the assessment of allograft rejection and infection, but other entities may also be seen in biopsy material. Presented here is an approach to lung transplant biopsies, in which there is an overview major diagnostic entities that may be encountered and discussion of findings that may present interpretive challenges.

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and Peer review Commissioned; not externally peer reviewed.