Figure 1

Figure 1

Consequences of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. The reduction in intestinal calcium absorption associated with vitamin D inadequacy triggers the release of parathyroid hormone, which mediates the mobilisation of calcium from bone, resulting in a reduction in bone mineral density. This homoeostatic response to vitamin D inadequacy may increase the risk of fractures. Another important consequence of vitamin D inadequacy is a decrease in neuromuscular function.